Singular & Plural Nouns: Definitions, Rules , Examples, list and Practice Exercises.

NUMBER (Singular & Plural Nouns: Definitions, Rules)

*Singular Number:  A noun which stands for only one person, animal or thing is said to be in the singular number.

*Plural Number:  A noun which stands for more than one person, animals or thing is said to be in the plural number.

Singular numbers : boy, book, girl, watch, hero, wolf etc.
Plural numbera : boys, books, girls. Watches, heroes, wolves etc.

Singular & Plural Nouns: Definitions, Rules , Examples, list and Practice Exercises.
Singular & Plural Nouns: Definitions, Rules , Examples, list and Practice Exercises.

B. Formation of plurals
There are certain rules regarding the formation of plurals :

1.      By changing ‘f’ or ‘fe’ into ‘v’ and adding ‘es’ or ‘s’ :
Singular        plural
calf              calves
knife            knives
loaf              loaves
scarf            scarves
shelf            shelves
wife             wives
Singular               plural
half                               halves
life                                  lives
leaf                               leaves
sheaf                         sheaves
thief                            thieves             
wolf                          wolves

By adding ‘es’ to the singular :
Singular       plural
ass              asses
box             boxes
batch          batches
class           classes
gas             gases
lass             lasses
match        matches
trench        trenches
watch         watches

Singular    plural
Arch         arches
bunch        bunches
bush          bushes
coach        coaches
kiss            kisses
loss           losses
peach        peaches
tax            taxes
witch            witches

2.      By adding ‘s’ to the singular when a noun ending in ‘y’ has a vowel before it.
Singular    plural
Bay          bays
chimney  chimneys
essay      essays
key          keys
play         plays
ray          rays
storey      storeys

Singular     plural
Boy             boys
donkey       donkeys
journey        journeys
monkey     monkeys
pulley         pulleys
trolley         trolleys
valley             valleys

By changing ‘y’ into ‘I’ and adding ‘es’ :
Singular    plural
army        armies
body        bodies
cry          cries
country   countries
fairy         fairies
family     families
library    libraries
pony        ponies
story       stories

Singular   plural
baby         babies
city           cities
copy        copies
duty         duties
fly            flies
gallary     gallaries
lady         ladies
remedy    remedies
study       studies

3.      By adding ‘es’ to the Nouns ending in ‘o’ :
Singular   plural
Buffalo   buffaloes
Cargo     cargoes
Hero      heroes
Mango  mangoes
Mosquito mosquitoes
Singular               plural
Calico                 calicoes
Echo                      echoes
motto                  mottoes
negro                  negroes
tomato               tomatoes


Exceptions :
Bamboo  bamboos
Photo     photoes
cuckoo                cuckoos
piano                   pianos

By changing the internal  vowels :
Singular                Plural
Foot                       Feet
Louse                      lice
Tooth                    teeth
Singular         Plural
Goose            geese
Mouse          mice
Woman       women

By adding ‘en’
Singular               plural
Brother               brethren
Ox                        oxen

Singular        plural
Child              children

Compound Noun : By changing the principal word into plural :
Singular            plural
Commander     commanders-
In- chief            in-chief
Gentleman        gentleman
Singular        plural
Governor-      Governors-
General         general
Looker-on        lookers-on

The following compounds have plurals by addings ‘s’ to the first element (part) :
Singular    plural
Brother-in-law   brother-in-law
Grant-in-aid    grants-in-aid
Lookr-on    lookers-on
Singular  plural
Mother-in-law   mothers-in-law
Passer-by  passer-by
Notary-public   notaries-public
D. The following compounds have plurals by addings ‘s’ to the last elements (part) :
Singular  plural
Step-on  step-sons  step-sons
Stand-by   stand-bys
Deputy-directors   Deputy-Directors
Take-off  take-offs
Singular   plural
Step-mother  step-mothers
Boy-friend    boy-friends
Grown-up    grown-ups
Maid-servant  maid-servants

Worksheet singular plural ( Number)

Correct the singular number nouns :
  • 1.      Mother has long, black hairs.
  • 2.      The teacher gave them a good educations.
  • 3.      The porter carried the luggages on the head.
  • 4.       Look at the torn sofa, I must buy new furnitures.
  • 5.      The new is read by barkha dutt, the new is true.
  •        The following nouns are used in only plural number :

Scissor  spectacles  clothes  jeans  shorts  trousers  riches valuable  people  socks  shoes  cattle  measles  billiards